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汽車鈑金維修技術要注重哪些?

來源:http://www.melbimprov.com發布時間:2021-03-12 13:49:02

金屬材料在一定載荷作用下,會產生塑性變形而不被破壞。利用金屬材料的這個性質.可以將金屬板材加工成所需的形狀。鈑金成形技術就是要在掌握平、直、圓三要素的基礎上,以手工操作方式將板材制作成不同形狀的制件。
Metal materials will produce plastic deformation without damage under certain load. With this property of metal material, the sheet metal can be processed into the required shape. Sheet metal forming technology is to grasp the flat, straight, round three elements on the basis of manual operation will be made into different shapes of sheet metal parts.
鈑金制作中彎曲、拱曲、咬縫、制筋、收放、拔緣等,是車身維修作用的基本技能.它不僅在鈑金作業中占有很大的工作量,而且對維修效率和品質有較大的影響。
Bending, arching, biting, rib making, retracting, edge pulling and so on are the basic skills of body maintenance in sheet metal production. It not only takes up a lot of work in sheet metal operation, but also has a great impact on maintenance efficiency and quality.
1彎曲
1 bend
鈑金構件的彎曲屬于簡單的成形作業.其中利用折彎設備可進行批量加工;而利用手工彎曲則適合單件及現場操作。車身鈑金維修作業中多以角形彎曲構件為主?;⌒螐澢酝残螛嫾闹谱髯顬榈湫?。角形彎曲成形的質量關鍵是直線(或相互垂直的直線)的加工與制作,基本操作要領是按要求畫好彎曲線并確保彎曲的角度。筒形的制作則需要過度圓滑,并且與要求的弧線一致。
The bending of sheet metal components is a simple forming operation. The bending equipment can be used for batch processing, while the manual bending is suitable for single piece and field operation. Most of the body sheet metal repair operations are based on angular bending components. The manufacture of cylindrical components is the most typical of arc bending. The key to the quality of angular bending is the processing and manufacture of straight lines (or mutually perpendicular lines). The basic operation is to draw the bending curve according to the requirements and ensure the bending angle. The barrel shape needs to be excessively smooth and consistent with the required arc.
2拱曲
2 arch
車身上的拱形構件也比較常見,加之車身覆蓋件多為曲面(單曲面或雙曲面)形狀,車身維修作業(挖補、修復)同樣需要成拱曲構件。所謂拱曲,就是利用對板料的邊收中放;,使之成為所需形狀如半球形、碟形、半殼形等。
The arched components on the body are also common. In addition, the body panels are mostly curved (single curved surface or hyperboloid) shape, so the body repair operations (patching, repair) also need to be arched components. The so-called arch is to use the edge of the sheet to close the middle; to make it into the required shape, such as hemispherical shape, dish shape, half shell shape, etc.
拱形件的制作分為冷做法和熱做法兩種。

濟南奔馳汽車保養
There are two kinds of arched parts: cold method and hot method.
3卷邊與咬縫
3 hemming and undercutting
用卷邊的方法將金屬板的邊緣卷起.可以提高構件的強度并使邊緣美觀,同時還可避免人員劃傷或劃壞其他物體。咬縫是將板料的邊緣敲成榫形(鉤形)并扣合在一起的方法。許多車身構件都是采取咬縫并附加點炸方式連接的。咬縫可以取代焊接.這對那些不允許焊接的材料史有實際意義。
The edge of the metal plate is rolled up by the method of edge curling, which can improve the strength of the component and make the edge beautiful. At the same time, it can avoid people scratching or damaging other objects. Undercutting is a method to knock the edge of the sheet into a tenon shape (hook shape) and buckle it together. Many body components are connected by undercutting and additional point blasting. Undercut can replace welding. This has practical significance for those materials that are not allowed to be welded.
4制筋
4 steel bar
在薄板上制成各種不同形狀的棱線.可以提高構件的剛性和抵抗構件變形的能力。這種經過制筋的板料,不僅強度發生變異而且還具有美化構件的作用。
The edge lines of various shapes are made on the thin plate, which can improve the rigidity of the component and the ability to resist the deformation of the component. This kind of reinforced sheet not only has strength variation, but also has the function of beautifying components.
車身覆蓋在發生損傷后,起加固和裝飾作用的外表線形會受到破壞,對車身覆蓋件進行敲平、焊接、挖補等作業后,原有的棱線也可能發生彎曲,扭曲或其他變形。這些都需要借助手工工具及手工操作加以修整、恢復,手工制筋是鈑金修復的常用方法。
After the body covering is damaged, the exterior line which plays the role of reinforcement and decoration will be damaged. After the body covering is knocked down, welded, patched and other operations, the original edge line may also be bent, twisted or other deformation. All these need to be repaired and restored with the help of hand tools and manual operation. Manual reinforcement is a common method of sheet metal repair.
5收邊與放邊
5 edge closing and edge setting
車身鈑金維修作業,經常會遇到收邊與放邊的操作。收邊可分為無波折和有波折兩種方法.放邊則分為打薄、拉薄和胎型三種方法。
Body sheet metal repair operations, often encounter the operation of edge closing and edge setting. Edging can be divided into two methods: no break and with break. Edging can be divided into three methods: thinning, thinning and tire type.
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